Casino europa tunisia

Tunisieofficially the Republic of Tunisia [16] Arabic: Its northernmost point, Cape Angelais casino europa tunisia northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east.

Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its 1, kilometres miles of coastline includes African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, click at this page the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar.

Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered [ by whom? In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Casino europa tunisia immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater.

After several attempts starting inthe Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia byfollowed by the Ottomans casino europa tunisia and The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The Casino europa tunisia colonization of Tunisia occurred in Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in The country voted casino europa tunisia parliament again on 26 October[22] and for President on 23 November The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis ; a central urban hub and the capital of modern-day Tunisia.

The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -iaevolved from Casino europa tunisia Tunisie. The French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country. Before Tunisia, the territory's name was Ifriqiya or Africawhich gave the present day name of the continent Africa. Agricultural communities in the humid coastal plains of central Tunisia then were ancestors of today's Berber tribes.

It was believed in ancient times that Africa was originally populated by Gaetulians and Libyans, both nomadic peoples. According to the Roman historian Sallustthe demigod Hercules died in Spain and his polyglot eastern army was left to settle the land, with some migrating to Africa.

Persians went casino europa tunisia the West and intermarried with the Gaetulians and became the Numidians.

The Medes settled and were known as Mauri, later Moors. The Numidians and Moors belonged to the race from which the Berbers casino europa tunisia descended.

The translated meaning of Numidian is Nomad and indeed the people were semi-nomadic until the reign of Masinissa of the Massyli tribe. At the beginning of recorded history, Tunisia was inhabited by Berber tribes.

The city of Carthage was founded in the 9th century BC by Phoenicians. The settlers of Carthage brought their culture and religion from the Phoenicians. After the series of wars with Greek city-states of Sicily in the 5th century BC, Carthage rose to power and eventually became the dominant civilization in the Western Mediterranean. Tanit's symbol, a simple female figure with extended arms and long dress, is a popular icon found in ancient sites. The founders of Carthage also established a Tophetwhich was altered in Roman times.

A Carthaginian invasion of Italy led by Hannibal during the Second Punic Warone of a series of wars with Romenearly crippled the rise of Roman power. After the Roman conquest, the region became one of the main granaries of Rome and was fully Latinized.

During the Roman period the area of what is now Tunisia enjoyed a huge development. The economy, mainly during the Empire, boomed: Casino europa tunisia the Granary of the Empirethe area of actual Casino europa tunisia and coastal Tripolitaniaaccording to one estimate, produced casino europa tunisia million tons of cereals each year, one-quarter of which was exported to the Empire.

Additional crops included beans, figs, grapes, and other fruits. Casino europa tunisia the casino europa tunisia century, olive oil rivalled cereals as an export item. In addition to the casino europa tunisia and the capture and transporting of exotic wild animals from the western mountains, the principal production and exports included the textiles, marble, wine, timber, livestock, pottery such as African Red Slipand wool.

There was even a huge production of mosaics and ceramics, exported mainly to Italy, in the central area of El Djem where there was the second biggest amphitheater in the Roman Empire. Berber bishop Donatus Magnus was the founder of a Christian group known as the Donatists.

Sometime between the second half of the 7th century and the early part of the 8th century, Casino europa tunisia Muslim conquest occurred in the region. They founded the first Islamic city casino europa tunisia North Africa, Kairouan. The invasion of Tunisia by the Banu Hilala warlike Arab Bedouin tribe encouraged by the Fatimids of Egypt to seize North Africa, sent the region's urban and economic life into further decline.

The coasts were held briefly by the Normans of Sicily in the 12th century, but following the conquest of Tunisia in — casino europa tunisia the Almohads the last Christians casino europa tunisia Tunisia disappeared. The Almohads initially ruled over Tunisia through online deluxe casino hiring gold governor, usually a near relative of the Caliph.

Despite the prestige of the new casino europa tunisia, the country was still unruly, with continuous rioting and fighting between the casino europa tunisia and wandering Arabs and Turks, the latter being subjects of the Casino europa tunisia Armenian adventurer Karakush. Also Tunisia was occupied by Ayyubids between and and again between and The greatest threat to Almohad rule in Tunisia was the Banu Ghaniyarelatives of the Almoravidswho from their base in Mallorca tried to restore Almoravid rule over Maghreb.

Around they succeeded in extending their rule over the whole of Tunisia, until they were crushed by Almohad troops in casino europa tunisia Tunisia remained part of the Almohad state, until when the son of Abu Hafs declared himself independent.

During the reign of the Hafsid dynastyfruitful commercial relationships were established with several Christian Mediterranean states. In the last years of the HafsidsSpain seized many of the coastal cities, but these were recovered source the Ottoman Empire. Initially under Turkish rule from Algiers, soon the Ottoman Porte appointed directly for Tunis a governor called the Pasha supported by janissary forces.

Before long, however, Tunisia became in effect an autonomous province, under the local Bey. Under its Turkish governors, the BeysTunisia attained virtual independence. The Hussein dynasty of Beys, established inlasted until During this era the governing councils controlling Tunisia remained largely composed of a foreign elite who continued to conduct state business in the Turkish language.

Attacks on European shipping were made by corsairsprimarily from Algiers, but also from Tunis and Tripoliyet after a long period of declining raids the growing power of the European states finally forced its termination. Under the Ottoman Empire, the boundaries of Tunisia contracted; casino europa tunisia lost territory to the west Constantine and to the east Tripoli.

Great epidemics ravaged Tunisia in —, — and — In the 19th century, the rulers of Tunisia became aware of the ongoing efforts at political and social casino europa tunisia in the Ottoman capital. The Bey of Tunis then, by his own lights but informed by the Turkish example, attempted to effect a modernizing reform of institutions and the economy. Casino europa tunisia was the reason or pretext for French forces to establish a Protectorate in InTunisia declared itself bankrupt and an international financial commission took control over its economy.

Inusing the pretext of a Tunisian incursion into Algeriathe French invaded with an casino europa tunisia of about 36, and forced the Bey to agree to the terms of the Treaty of Bardo Al Qasr as Sa'id.

Under French colonization, European settlements in the country were actively encouraged; the number of French colonists grew from 34, in toin In there wereItalians in Tunisia. Thus, the persecution, and murder of the Jews from towas part of the Shoah in France.

From —, Tunisia was the scene of the Tunisia Campaigna series of battles between the Axis and Allied forces. The battle opened with initial success by the German and Italian forces, but the massive supply and numerical superiority of the Allies led to the Axis surrender on 13 May A year later, Tunisia was declared a republic, with Bourguiba as the first President.

Following a report by Amnesty InternationalThe Guardian called Tunisia "one of the most modern but repressive countries in the Arab world. He was consistently re-elected with enormous majorities every five years well over 80 percent of the votethe last being 25 October[62] until he fled the casino europa tunisia amid popular unrest in January Ben Ali and his family were accused of corruption [63] and plundering the country's money.

Economic liberalisation provided further opportunities for financial mismanagement, [64] while corrupt members of the Trabelsi family, most notably in the cases of Imed Trabelsi and Belhassen Trabelsicontrolled much of the business sector in the country. Independent human click to see more groups, such as Amnesty InternationalFreedom Houseand Protection International, documented that basic human casino europa tunisia political rights were not respected.

The Tunisian Revolution [73] [74] was an intensive campaign of civil resistance that was precipitated by high unemploymentfood inflation casino europa tunisia, corruption[75] a lack of freedom of speech casino europa tunisia other political freedoms [76] and poor living conditions. Labour unions were said to be an integral part of the protests. The casino europa tunisia for mass casino europa tunisia was the death of Mohamed Bouazizia year-old Tunisian street vendor, who casino europa tunisia himself afire on 17 December in protest at casino europa tunisia confiscation of his wares сфера gambling online for money возможности the humiliation inflicted on him by a municipal official named Faida Hamdy.

Anger and violence intensified following Bouazizi's death on 4 Januaryultimately leading longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali to resign and flee the country on 14 Januaryafter 23 years in power. Protests continued for banning of the ruling party and the eviction of all its members from the transitional government formed by Mohammed Ghannouchi. Eventually the new government gave in to the demands. A Tunis court banned the ex-ruling party RCD and confiscated all its resources.

Casino europa tunisia decree by the minister of the interior banned the "political police", special forces which were used to intimidate and persecute political activists. On 3 Marchthe president announced that elections to a Constituent Assembly would be held on 23 October The Ennahda Movementformerly banned under the Ben Ali regime, won a plurality of 90 seats out of a total of In MarchEnnahda declared it will not support making sharia the main source of legislation in the new constitution, maintaining the secular nature of the state.

Ennahda's stance on the issue was criticized by hardline Islamists, who wanted strict sharia, but was welcomed by secular parties. InPresident Moncef Marzouki established Tunisia's Truth and Dignity Commissionas a key part of creating a national reconciliation.

Tunisia was hit by two terror attacks on foreign tourists infirst killing casino europa tunisia people at the Bardo National Museumand later killing 38 casino europa tunisia at the Sousse beachfront. Tunisian president, Beji Caid Essebsirenewed the state of emergency in October for three more casino europa tunisia. It is bordered by Algeria on the west and southwest and Libya on the south east. An casino europa tunisia southward turn of the Mediterranean coast in northern Tunisia gives the country two distinctive Mediterranean coasts, west-east in the north, and north-south in the east.

Though it is relatively small in size, Tunisia has great environmental diversity due to its north-south extent. Its east-west extent is limited.

Casino europa tunisia

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The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis; a central urban hub and the capital of modern-day Tunisia. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, evolved.
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